Shear stress in fluids
Any real fluids (liquids and gases included) moving along solid boundary will incur a shear stress on that boundary. The no-slip condition dictates that the speed of the fluid at the boundary (relative to the boundary) is zero, but at some height from the boundary the flow speed must equal that of the fluid. The region between these two points is aptly named the boundary layer.
For all Newtonian fluids in laminar flow, the shear stress is proportional to the (...)
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Frisch and Francis, Journal of Cell Biology, 1994. WP
Anoikis is a form of programmed cell death (apoptosis) that is induced by anchorage-dependent cells detaching from the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM).
Usually cells stay close to the tissue to which they belong since the communication between proximal cells as well as between cells and ECM provide essential signals for growth or survival.
When cells are detached from the ECM, there is a loss of normal cell–matrix (...)
DTCs in the bone marrow have been detected for all solid tumor types, suggesting that this compartment might be a preferred reservoir for blood-borne DTC from where they may re-disseminate to other distant organs such as liver or lungs where better growth conditions may exist.
For example, DTCs are prognostic markers in colorectal cancer even though bone metastases are very rare in this cancer type (Lindemann et al, 1992; Pantel et al, 1993).
In breast cancer, where bone metastases are (...)
Nagrath S, Sequist LV, Maheswaran S, Bell DW, Irimia D, Ulkus L, Smith MR, Kwak EL, Digumarthy S, Muzikansky A, et al. Isolation of rare circulating tumour cells in cancer patients by microchip technology. Nature. 2007;450:1235–1239. [PMC free article] [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18097410]
The authors describe microfluidics-based capture of CTCs on a silicon-chip lined with microposts. The technology demonstrates efficient capture of CTCs from several types of (...)
Maheswaran S, Sequist LV, Nagrath S, Ulkus L, Brannigan B, Collura CV, Inserra E, Diederichs S, Iafrate AJ, Bell DW, et al. Detection of mutations in EGFR in circulating lung-cancer cells. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:366–377. [Free] [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18596266]
This is the first report describing the molecular characterization of CTCs in lung cancer: EGFR mutations consistent with those identified in the primary tumor can be detected in CTCs. Serial analysis of (...)
CTCs and EMT
Co-expression of putative stemness and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers on single circulating tumour cells from patients with early and metastatic breast cancer. Papadaki MA, Kallergi G, Zafeiriou Z, Manouras L, Theodoropoulos PA, Mavroudis D, Georgoulias V, Agelaki S. BMC Cancer. 2014 Sep 3;14:651. doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-651 . PMID: #25182808# [Free]
Interplay of Stem Cell Characteristics, EMT, and Microtentacles in Circulating Breast Tumor (...)
Cancer therapy. Ex vivo culture of circulating breast tumor cells for individualized testing of drug susceptibility. Yu M, Bardia A, Aceto N, Bersani F, Madden MW, Donaldson MC, Desai R, Zhu H, Comaills V, Zheng Z, Wittner BS, Stojanov P, Brachtel E, Sgroi D, Kapur R, Shioda T, Ting DT, Ramaswamy S, Getz G, Iafrate AJ, Benes C, Toner M, Maheswaran S, Haber DA. Science. 2014 Jul 11;345(6193):216-20. doi:10.1126/science.1253533 . PMID: #25013076# [Free]
circulating tumor cells in small-cell lung cancer, SCLC
Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), an aggressive neuroendocrine tumor with early dissemination and dismal prognosis, accounts for 15-20% of lung cancer cases and ∼200,000 deaths each year. Most cases are inoperable, and biopsies to investigate SCLC biology are rarely obtainable.
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs), which are prevalent in SCLC, present a readily accessible ’liquid biopsy’.
It has been shown that CTCs from patients with either (...)
In vitro expansion of tumour cells derived from blood; CTCs expansion
Cancer therapy. Ex vivo culture of circulating breast tumor cells for individualized testing of drug susceptibility. Yu M, Bardia A, Aceto N, Bersani F, Madden MW, Donaldson MC, Desai R, Zhu H, Comaills V, Zheng Z, Wittner BS, Stojanov P, Brachtel E, Sgroi D, Kapur R, Shioda T, Ting DT, Ramaswamy S, Getz G, Iafrate AJ, Benes C, Toner M, Maheswaran S, Haber DA. Science. 2014 Jul 11;345(6193):216-20. (...)
Despite the numerous scientific publications related to CTC detection in cancer patients, the physician does not use this biomarker in routine clinical practice. This can be explained by the large number of methods available for CTC detection and by the difficulty of the physician and the biologist to select the optimal method for use.
It is noteworthy that the only FDA approved method for CTC detection, the CellSearch method (Janssen Diagnostics Company, USA), has been (...)