ALK-associated Spitz nevus
Activating kinase fusions have recently been described as early oncogenic events that are mutually exclusive with HRAS and BRAF mutations in Spitz tumors.
high frequency of chromosome 2 aberrations (where ALK resides, 63%)
chromosome 1p loss (37%)
In a series (#25602801#), Spitz tumors with ALK fusions demonstrated unique histopathologic features. Clefts and small vesicle-like spaces were (...)
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ALK-associated Spitz nevus
Cutaneous lymphomas of both B cells and less commonly T cells can exceptionally exhibit spindle-cell morphology.
Less than 30 spindle-cell B-cell lymphomas of the skin have been described, mostly before the adoption of detailed immunohistochemistry, and thus initially interpreted as variants of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Furthermore, some authors suggest that cutaneous spindle-cell B-cell lymphomas (cSCBCLs) may behave more aggressively than their conventional morphologic (...)
The sinonasal tract harbors several different types of papillomas, some of which can progress to carcinoma. The most frequent among these are inverted and oncocytic Schneiderian papillomas.
The rates of progression are somewhat controversial but are approximately 5% to 10% and are almost invariably described in the literature as in situ or invasive squamous cell carcinoma.
Other carcinoma types, such as mucoepidermoid and sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, have also been described. (...)
p16 loss in 9p21 FISH
p16 FISH with BAP1 immunohistochemistry can be used to separate benign from malignant mesothelial proliferations. (#25634745#)
BAP1 Immunohistochemistry and p16 FISH to Separate Benign From Malignant Mesothelial Proliferations. Sheffield BS, Hwang HC, Lee AF, Thompson K, Rodriguez S, Tse CH, Gown AM, Churg A. Am J Surg Pathol. 2015 Jan 28. PMID: (...)
Next generation sequencing based multi-gene mutational screen foracute myeloid leukemia using miseq: applicability for diagnostics anddisease monitoring. Luthra R, Patel KP, Reddy NG, Haghshenas V, Routbort MJ, Harmon MA, Barkoh BA, Kanagal-Shamanna R, Ravandi F, Cortes JE, Kantarjian HM, Medeiros LJ, Singh RR. Haematologica. 2013 Oct 18. PMID: #24142997#
Pediatric autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is relatively common and has a characteristic but relatively nonspecific histopathology with a usually prominent lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate.
Hhyaline droplets in Kupffer cells on routine H&E sections should be distinguished from the non-specific granular lysosomal structures frequently found in Kupffer cells in a variety of chronic liver diseases and from erythrophagocytosis.
Hyaline droplets may occur in AIH regardless of the type and correlate (...)
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one cause of a fatty liver, occurring when fat is deposited (steatosis) in the liver NOT due to excessive alcohol use.
It is related to insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome and may respond to treatments originally developed for other insulin-resistant states (e.g. diabetes mellitus type 2) such as weight loss, metformin and thiazolidinediones.
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the most extreme form of NAFLD, and is (...)
EBV-associated cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma of lymph nodes; nodal EBV-positive cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma; nodal EBV cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma
apperance (#25634749#). centroblastoid appearance (56%) (lower incidence in ENKTL :15%). pleomorphic appearance ( 23%) (ENKTL : 67%).
T-cell lineage (85%) on the basis of TCR expression and/or TCRγ gene rearrangement (#25634749#). 46% are TCRβ positive (αβ T) 13% are TCRγ and/or δ positive (γδ T) 26% are TCR-silent type with clonal TCRγ gene (...)
IHC for IDH1-R132H is relatively sensitive and specific, but there is a discordance rate that is not trivial, with NGS mutation profiling. In addition, a significant proportion of patients harbor IDH1 non-R132H mutations not detectable by IHC, potentially limiting utility of IHC screening for IDH1 mutations.
Comparison of Next-generation Sequencing Mutation Profiling With BRAF and IDH1 Mutation-specific Immunohistochemistry. Jabbar KJ, Luthra R, Patel KP, Singh RR, Goswami R, (...)
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