Wednesday 29 October 2003
exocrine pancreatic cancer, pancreatic adenocarcinomas, pancreatic cancer; pancreas cancer
Definition: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is the fifth leading cause of cancer death with a 5-year survival rate of less than 5%.
Although the role of a few known oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in the development of pancreatic cancer is fairly well established, it is obvious that the majority of genetic changes responsible for the initiation and progression of this disease are still unknown.
genic inactivations by somatic mutations
- p53 (TP53) at 17p13.1 (MIM.191170)
- p16 (CDKN2A or MTS1) at 9p21 (MIM.600160)
- MADH4 (DPC4 or SMAD4) at 18q21.1 (MIM.600993)
- ACVR1B at 12q13 (MIM.601300)
- K-RAS (KRAS2) at 12q12.1 (MIM.190070)
Genetic risk factors are believed to play a major role. Approximately 10% of PC is estimated to have familial inheritance.
Several germline mutations have been found to be involved in hereditary forms of PC, including both familial PC (FPC) and PC as one of the manifestations of a hereditary cancer syndrome or other hereditary conditions.
Candidate genes have been described and patients considered for screening programs under research protocols should first be tested for presence of germline mutations in the BRCA2, PALB2 and ATM genes. In specific PC populations, including in Italy, hereditary cancer predisposition genes such as CDKN2A also explain a considerable fraction of FPC. (25152581)
Candidate genes: BRCA2, PALB2, ATM, CDKN2A. (25152581)
See: familial pancreatic cancer
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma by Washington Deceit (1)
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Pancreatic adenocarcinoma by Washington Deceit (2)
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