Monday 18 March 2013
Sialadenosis is the term used to describe the non-neoplastic, non-inflammatory enlargement of the salivary glands, usually the parotid, which occurs in association with many systemic disorders.
The involvement is usually bilateral, and the etiology of the often asymptomatic enlargement unclear.
Obesity, malnutrition of many causes, and alcoholic cirrhosis are common associations.
Any condition affecting nutritional absorption may be involved, as well as hypothyroidism, gonadal atrophy, diabetes mellitus, and other endocrine abnormalities.
Salivary gland enlargement usually resolves with treatment of the underlying condition.
A variety of medications may result in salivary gland enlargement including phenothiazines, iodide-containing compounds, and heavy metals, among others.
Lastly, infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus may result in diffuse, symmetric, bilateral parotid (and possibly submandibular) gland enlargement.
Also commonly associated with HIV infection is the development of lymphoepithelial cysts which may become quite large and require frequent aspiration or other intervention.