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anomalies - Humpath.com - Human pathology

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anomalies

Wednesday 16 March 2016

anomaly; abnormality; abnormalities

WP

Definition: An anomaly is a variation from normality caused by a disease . It has been theorized and defined in the book "The Normal and the Pathological" (1966. New York: Zone Books, 1991) by Georges Canghilem (1904-1995).

In this website, we will prefer the word " anomaly " to the word " lesion ", because this last word implied a damage by a cause .

Types

Human diseases are caused and cause anomalies of various categories :
- chomosomal anomalies
- genetic anomalies
- metabolic anomalies
- dysimmune anomalies
- tumoral anomalies
- external anomalies

  • traumatisms
  • physical injuries
  • drugs and toxics
  • environnemental anomalies

Human diseases cause anomalies of various categories :
- clinical anomalies
- biological anomalies
- molecular anomalies
- physiological anomalies
- morphological anomalies

The study of morphological anomalies forms morbid anatomy, histopathology and cytopathology.

Morbid anatomy is the study of macroscopical anomalies by macroscopical examination or macroscopy .

Histopathology is the study of microscopical anomalies of tissues by microscopical examination .

Cytopathology is the study of microscopical anomalies of cells by microscopical examination .

The study of molecular anomalies forms molecular pathology .

Localization of anomalies

- cardiovascular anomalies
- pulmonary anomalies
- digestive anomalies
- genital anomalies
- urinary anomalies
- cerebral anomalies
- nervous anomalies

Classification

- An anomalie of a structure is a Lesion

- visble anomalies of a Structure are morphological anomalies
- anomalies of a function (functional anomalies)
- anomalies of a process

According to the organization level

- molecular anomalies

  • anomalies of molecules
  • anomalies of molecular functions
  • anomalies of molecules processes
  • anomalies of molecular complexes
  • anomalies of a molecular pathway

- cellular anomalies

  • anomalies of a cellular functions
  • anomalies of a cellular processes
  • anomalies of a cellular organelles
  • anomalies of cells

- tissular anomalies

  • anomalies of a tissular functions
  • anomalies of a tissular processes
  • anomalies of a tissular components
  • anomalies of tissues

Organ level

  • anomalies of organ functions
  • anomalies of organ processes
  • anomalies of organ components
  • anomalies of organs

System level

  • anomalies of system functions
  • anomalies of system processes
  • anomalies of system components
  • anomalies of systems

Body level (Clinical level)

- electrolytical anomalies
- functionnal anomalies
- clinical anomalies

See also

- anomaly
- normality
- pathology / Pathology