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RNA editing

Wednesday 14 April 2004

Definition: The most prevalent type of RNA editing is mediated by ADAR (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA) enzymes, which convert adenosines to inosines (a process known as A—>I RNA editing) in double-stranded (ds)RNA substrates.

A—>I RNA editing was long thought to affect only selected transcripts by altering the proteins they encode. However, genome-wide screening has revealed numerous editing sites within inverted Alu repeats in introns and untranslated regions.

A—>I RNA editing crosstalks with RNA-interference pathways, which, like A—>I RNA editing, involve dsRNAs. A—>I RNA editing therefore seems to have additional functions, including the regulation of retrotransposons and gene silencing, which adds a new urgency to the challenges of fully understanding ADAR functions.

Pathology

- Metabolomic and Lipidomic Profiling Identifies The Role of the RNA Editing Pathway in Endometrial Carcinogenesis.

  • ADAR2 is overexpressed in EC and that the increase in expression positively correlates with the aggressiveness of the tumor.
  • Furthermore, silencing of ADAR2 in three EC cell lines resulted in a decreased proliferation rate, increased apoptosis, and reduced migration capabilities in vitro.
  • ADAR2 functions as an oncogene in endometrial carcinogenesis and could be a potential target for improving EC treatment strategies.
  • doi : 10.1038/s41598-017-09169-2

References

- Nishikura K. Editor meets silencer: crosstalk between RNA editing and RNA interference. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2006 Dec;7(12):919-31. PMID: 17139332

- Anant S, Davidson NO. Hydrolytic nucleoside and nucleotide deamination, and genetic instability: a possible link between RNA-editing enzymes and cancer? Trends Mol Med. 2003 Apr;9(4):147-52. PMID: 12727140