Wednesday 14 July 2004
Definition: Ovarian thecoma is a relatively rare sex cord tumor which occurs before and after menopause.
Ovary : Thecoma at WebPathology
Age at diagnosis: Usually > 40 years old (65% post-menopausal)
+/- hormonally active (estrogenic or androgenic)
unilateral (in 90% of cases)
Rare in childhood
Typically estrogenic manifestations
Some may be androgenic: particularly those containing steroid cells
Nearly always benign
A few malignant examples
well defined, firm, solid, covered by intact ovarian serosa;
- largely or entirely solid
- may be cysts
- Cut surface of thecoma showing a predominance of yellow areas alternating with whitish foci.
Fascicles of spindle cells with:
- centrally placed nuclei
- moderate amount of pale cytoplasm
- Bland microscopic appearance of thecoma, with some variability in cellularity.
Intervening tissue may show:
- considerable collagen deposition
- focal hyaline plaque formation
Degree of cellularity varies considerably
Some in young women are heavily calcified
Plump ovoid to spindle cells
Thecomas are inhibin+
The tumor cells have abundant pale cytoplasm.
Hyaline plaques are conspicuous.
- moderate pale cytoplasm containing lipid droplets
- central nuclei
- collagen deposition
- focal hyaline plaque formation
- +/- heavily calcified
- +/- prominent stromal hyperplasia (hyperthecosis)
fat stains+ (on fresh/frozen tissue)
- Oil red O+: abundant intracytoplasmic neutral fat
- Sudan black + (fat stains)
- reticulin fibers surrounding individual cells
- usually reticulin fibers surrounding individual cells
- may be islands devoid of reticulin, especially in areas of luteinization
Estradiol usually limited to a small number of tumor cell
May be prominent stromal hyperplasia, particularly if postmenopausal.
- transitions may then be seen from focal stromal hyperplasia through diffuse thecomatosis (hyperthecosis) to thecoma, suggesting pathogenetic continuum
- likely that small tumors designated stromal luteomas4,5 are a manifestation of this spectrum
Sometimes, ovarian tumors otherwise typical of thecoma contain cells with features of steroid hormone-secreting cells (lutein, Leydig, and adrenal cortical):
- generally designated luteinized thecoma:
- some associated with peculiar form of sclerosing peritonitis
- stromal–Leydig cell tumor or Leydig cell-containing thecoma
- terms reserved for rare examples with Reinke crystalloids in cytoplasm of these cells
- tend to occur in younger women
- may have an androgenic rather than estrogenic effect
ovarian luteinized thecoma (Luteinized Thecoma of Ovary)
- thecoma with steroid hormone secreting cells
- focal mitotic activity
Leydig cell containing thecoma
- cytoplasmic Reinke crystalloids
during pregnancy (15327450)
- Yellow color important feature in differential diagnosis with fibroma.
ovarian lipid cell tumor
ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors
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