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immune checkpoint inhibitors

Sunday 2 November 2014

immune checkpoint blockade; immune checkpoint inhibitors; immune checkpoint inhibition; PD-L1 inhibitor; PD-1 inhibitor; PD-L1 inhibitors; immune blockade ; immune checkpoint blockers


- atezolizumab (Yervoy)
- nivolumab (Opdivo)
- pembrolizumab (Keytruda)
- atezolizumab (Tecentriq)
- ipilimumab
- pidilizumab
- durvalumab



A ligand-receptor interaction that has been investigated as a target for cancer treatment is the interaction between the transmembrane programmed cell death 1 protein (PD-1; also known as CD279) and its ligand, PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1).

In normal physiology, PD-L1 on the surface of a cell binds to PD1 on the surface of an immune cell, which inhibits the activity of the immune cell.

It appears that upregulation of PD-L1 on the cancer cell surface may allow them to evade the host immune system by inhibiting T cells that might otherwise attack the tumor cell.

Antibodies that bind to either PD-1 or PD-L1 and therefore block the interaction may allow the T-cells to attack the tumor. Initial clinical trial results with an IgG4 PD1 antibody called nivolumab were published in 2010.

Side effects

- immune checkpoint blockade dysimmune toxicities.

- PD1 inhibitiors-associated pneumonitis

See also

- targeted immunotherapy

Open references

- Management of immune checkpoint blockade dysimmune toxicities: a collaborative position paper. 2017. doi : 10.1093/annonc/mdv623

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