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SOX10+ tumors

Saturday 12 January 2019

Definition : SOX10 is a newer Schwannian and melanocytic marker that has generated great interest for its relative sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of neural crest-derived tumors.

- SOX10 in melanocytic tumors

- mammary tumors

  • Usually positive nuclear staining in breast basal-like / unclassified triple negative / metaplastic carcinoma (Hum Pathol 2013;44:959)
  • Usually negative / rarely positive staining in breast luminal A/B or HER2+ carcinoma (5% positive), ER-/PR- DCIS (4% positive), phyllodes tumor, fibroadenoma


- salivary gland tumors

  • In major salivary glands, expressed in nuclei of acini and both luminal and abluminal cells of intercalated ducts, but not in other sites (Mod Pathol 2013;26:1041).
  • SOX10+ carcinomas include acinic cell, adenoid cystic (Br J Cancer 2013;109:444), epithelial-myoepithelial, myoepithelial; also pleomorphic adenomas, including the pleomorphic adenoma component of carcinoma

- soft tissue tumors of neural crest origin

  • SOX10 shows an increased specificity for soft tissue tumors of neural crest origin compared with S100 (Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 2012;20:445)

- SOX10 immunohistochemistry in sweat ductal/glandular neoplasms

- granular cell tumor / granular cell tumors : SOX10+

- SOX10 expression in salivary gland tumors

  • SOX10 is a marker of acinus and intercalated duct differentiation in salivary gland tumors. (23558573)
    • Salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is an insidious slow-growing cancer with the propensity to recur and metastasise to distant sites.
    • Basal-like breast carcinoma (BBC) is a molecular subtype that constitutes 15-20% of breast cancers, shares histological similarities and basal cell markers with ACC, lacks expression of ER (oestrogen receptor), PR (progesterone receptor), and HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2), and, similar to ACC, metastasises predominantly to the lung and brain.
  • SOX10 expression in ACC and BBC appears to be a part of a highly coordinated transcriptional programme characteristic for cancers with basal/myoepithelial features.
  • Comparison between ACC/BBC and other cancers, such as neuroblastoma and MEL, reveals potential molecular markers specific for these cancers that are likely linked to their cell identity.
  • SOX10 is a diagnostic marker for ACC and BBC and provides important molecular insight into their molecular etiology and cell origin.
  • Given that SOX10 was recently described as a principal driver of MEL, identification of conserved elements of the SOX10 signatures may help in better understanding of SOX10-related signalling and development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic tools. (23799842)

See also

- IHC markers