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Tuesday 12 October 2004

Oesophagitis; esophagitis


Definition: Inflammation of esophageal mucosa.


- congestive esophagitis
- acute esophagitis
- chronic esophagitis

- ulcerative esophagitis


- reflux esophagitis / peptic esophagitis
- infectious esophagitis / infective esophagitis

  • bacterial esophagitis
    • mycobacterial esophagitis
  • fungal esophagitis
    • Candida esophagitis
  • parasitic esophagitis

- dysimmune esophagitis

- drug-induced esophagitis
- sloughing esophagitis
- radiation-induced esophagitis
- esophageal vesicobullous diseases

See also

- esophageal lesions
- esophageal lesional syndromes
- esophageal diseases


Eosinophilic esophagitis

Liacouras, C.A., Furuta, G.T., Hirano, I. et al. Eosinophilic esophagitis: updated consensus recommendations for children and adults. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011; 128: 3–20 (.e6; quiz 21-2. doi : 10.1016/j.jaci.2011.02 040)

Attwood, S.E., Smyrk, T.C., Demeester, T.R., and Jones, J.B. Esophageal eosinophilia with dysphagia. A distinct clinicopathologic syndrome. Dig Dis Sci. 1993; 38: 109–116

Roman, S., Savarino, E., Savarino, V., and Mion, F. Eosinophilic oesophagitis: from physiopathology to treatment. Dig Liver Dis. 2013; 45: 871–878

Kapel, R.C., Miller, J.K., Torres, C., Aksoy, S., Lash, R., and Katzka, D.A. Eosinophilic esophagitis: a prevalent disease in the United States that affects all age groups. Gastroenterology. 2008; 134: 1316–1321

van Rhijn, B.D., Verheij, J., Smout, A.J., and Bredenoord, A.J. Rapidly increasing incidence of eosinophilic esophagitis in a large cohort. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2013; 25: 47–52 ([e45])

Ronkainen, J., Talley, N.J., Aro, P. et al. Prevalence of oesophageal eosinophils and eosinophilic oesophagitis in adults: the population-based Kalixanda study. Gut. 2007; 56: 615–620

Syed, A.A., Andrews, C.N., Shaffer, E., Urbanski, S.J., Beck, P., and Storr, M. The rising incidence of eosinophilic oesophagitis is associated with increasing biopsy rates: a population-based study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2012; 36: 950–958

DeBrosse, C.W., Case, J.W., Putnam, P.E., Collins, M.H., and Rothenberg, M.E. Quantity and distribution of eosinophils in the gastrointestinal tract of children. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2006; 9: 210–218

Hruz, P., Straumann, A., Bussmann, C. et al. Escalating incidence of eosinophilic esophagitis: a 20-year prospective, population-based study in Olten County, Switzerland. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011; 128: 1349–1350 ([e1345])

Furuta, G.T., Liacouras, C.A., Collins, M.H. et al. Eosinophilic esophagitis in children and adults: a systematic review and consensus recommendations for diagnosis and treatment. Gastroenterology. 2007; 133: 1342–1363

Parfitt, J.R., Gregor, J.C., Suskin, N.G., Jawa, H.A., and Driman, D.K. Eosinophilic esophagitis in adults: distinguishing features from gastroesophageal reflux disease: a study of 41 patients. Mod Pathol. 2006; 19: 90–96

Potter, J.W., Saeian, K., Staff, D. et al. Eosinophilic esophagitis in adults: an emerging problem with unique esophageal features. Gastrointest Endosc. 2004; 59: 355–361

Genevay, M., Rubbia-Brandt, L., and Rougemont, A.L. Do eosinophil numbers differentiate eosinophilic esophagitis from gastroesophageal reflux disease?. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2010; 134: 815–825

Shah, A., Kagalwalla, A.F., Gonsalves, N., Melin-Aldana, H., Li, B.U., and Hirano, I. Histopathologic variability in children with eosinophilic esophagitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009; 104: 716–721

Lee, S., de Boer, W.B., Naran, A. et al. More than just counting eosinophils: proximal oesophageal involvement and subepithelial sclerosis are major diagnostic criteria for eosinophilic oesophagitis. J Clin Pathol. 2010; 63: 644–647

Liacouras, C.A., Spergel, J.M., Ruchelli, E. et al. Eosinophilic esophagitis: a 10-year experience in 381 children. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005; 3: 1198–1206

Mueller, S., Neureiter, D., Aigner, T., and Stolte, M. Comparison of histological parameters for the diagnosis of eosinophilic oesophagitis versus gastro-oesophageal reflux disease on oesophageal biopsy material. Histopathology. 2008; 53: 676–684

Pasha, S.F., DiBaise, J.K., Kim, H.J. et al. Patient characteristics, clinical, endoscopic, and histologic findings in adult eosinophilic esophagitis: a case series and systematic review of the medical literature. Dis Esophagus. 2007; 20: 311–319

Aceves, S.S., Newbury, R.O., Dohil, R., Schwimmer, J., and Bastian, J.F. Distinguishing eosinophilic esophagitis in pediatric patients: clinical, endoscopic, and histologic features of an emerging disorder. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2007; 41: 252–256

Dellon, E.S., Speck, O., Woodward, K. et al. Clinical and endoscopic characteristics do not reliably differentiate PPI-responsive esophageal eosinophilia and eosinophilic esophagitis in patients undergoing upper endoscopy: a prospective cohort study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013; 108: 1854–1860

Bhattacharya, B., Carlsten, J., Sabo, E. et al. Increased expression of eotaxin-3 distinguishes between eosinophilic esophagitis and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Hum Pathol. 2007; 38: 1744–1753

Rodrigo, S., Abboud, G., Oh, D. et al. High intraepithelial eosinophil counts in esophageal squamous epithelium are not specific for eosinophilic esophagitis in adults. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008; 103: 435–442

Protheroe, C., Woodruff, S.A., de Petris, G. et al. A novel histologic scoring system to evaluate mucosal biopsies from patients with eosinophilic esophagitis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009; 7: 749–755 ([e711])

Fell, J.M. Recognition, assessment and management of eosinophilic oesophagitis. Arch Dis Child. 2013; 98: 702–706

Konikoff, M.R., Noel, R.J., Blanchard, C. et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of fluticasone propionate for pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis. Gastroenterology. 2006; 131: 1381–1391

Pentiuk, S., Putnam, P.E., Collins, M.H., and Rothenberg, M.E. Dissociation between symptoms and histological severity in pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2009; 48: 152–160

Infectious oesophagitis

Remmelts, H.H., van den Brink, J.W., Laan, R., and Bac, D.J. Herpes simplex virus oesophagitis in a pregnant woman. Neth J Med. 2011; 69: 76–78

Canalejo Castrillero, E., Garcia Duran, F., Cabello, N., and Garcia Martinez, J. Herpes esophagitis in healthy adults and adolescents: report of 3 cases and review of the literature. Medicine. 2010; 89: 204–210

Wishingrad, M. Sexually transmitted esophagitis: primary herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in a healthy man. Gastrointest Endosc. 1999; 50: 845–846

Maiorana, A., Baccarini, P., Foroni, M., Bellini, N., and Giusti, F. Human cytomegalovirus infection of the gastrointestinal tract in apparently immunocompetent patients. Hum Pathol. 2003; 34: 1331–1336

Huppmann, A.R. and Orenstein, J.M. Opportunistic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract in the age of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Hum Pathol. 2010; 41: 1777–1787

Reggiani Bonetti, L., Losi, L., Di Gregorio, C. et al. Cytomegalovirus infection of the upper gastrointestinal tract: a clinical and pathological study of 30 cases. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2011; 46: 1228–1235

Damaschin, O., Dahmani, O., Faibis, F. et al. Esophageal tuberculosis in a patient on maintenance dialysis: advantages of interferon-gamma release assay. Ren Fail. 2009; 31: 248–250

Jain, S.K., Jain, S., Jain, M., and Yaduvanshi, A. Esophageal tuberculosis: is it so rare? Report of 12 cases and review of the literature. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002; 97: 287–291

Gupta, K.B., Manchanda, M., and Vermas, M. Tuberculous oesophagopleural fistula. J Indian Med Assoc. 2011; 109: 504–505

Radhi, J.M. and Schweiger, F. Bacterial oesophagitis in an immunocompromised patient. Postgrad Med J. 1994; 70: 233–234

Walsh, T.J., Belitsos, N.J., and Hamilton, S.R. Bacterial esophagitis in immunocompromised patients. Arch Intern Med. 1986; 146: 1345–1348

Howlett, S.A. Acute streptococcal esophagitis. Gastrointest Endosc. 1979; 25: 150–151

Caustic oesophagitis

Contini, S. and Scarpignato, C. Caustic injury of the upper gastrointestinal tract: a comprehensive review. World J Gastroenterol. 2013; 19: 3918–3930

Johnson, C.M. and Brigger, M.T. The public health impact of pediatric caustic ingestion injuries. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2012; 138: 1111–1115

Osman, M., Russell, J., Shukla, D., Moghadamfalahi, M., and Granger, D.N. Responses of the murine esophageal microcirculation to acute exposure to alkali, acid, or hypochlorite. J Pediatr Surg. 2008; 43: 1672–1678

Kochhar, R., Sethy, P.K., Kochhar, S., Nagi, B., and Gupta, N.M. Corrosive induced carcinoma of esophagus: report of three patients and review of literature. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006; 21: 777–780

Drug-induced esophagitis

Zografos, G.N., Georgiadou, D., Thomas, D., Kaltsas, G., and Digalakis, M. Drug-induced esophagitis. Dis Esophagus. 2009; 22: 633–637

Abid, S., Mumtaz, K., Jafri, W. et al. Pill-induced esophageal injury: endoscopic features and clinical outcomes. Endoscopy. 2005; 37: 740–744

Kikendall, J.W. Pill esophagitis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1999; 28: 298–305

Abraham, S.C., Cruz-Correa, M., Lee, L.A., Yardley, J.H., and Wu, T.T. Alendronate-associated esophageal injury: pathologic and endoscopic features. Mod Pathol. 1999; 12: 1152–1157

Abraham, S.C., Yardley, J.H., and Wu, T.T. Erosive injury to the upper gastrointestinal tract in patients receiving iron medication: an underrecognized entity. Am J Surg Pathol. 1999; 23: 1241–1247

Medlicott, S.A., Ma, M., Misra, T., and Dupre, M.P. Vascular wall degeneration in doxycycline-related esophagitis. Am J Surg Pathol. 2013; 37: 1114–1115

Lymphocytic esophagitis

Basseri, B., Levy, M., Wang, H.L. et al. Redefining the role of lymphocytes in gastroesophageal reflux disease and eosinophilic esophagitis. Dis Esophagus. 2010; 23: 368–376

Cohen, S., Saxena, A., Waljee, A.K. et al. Lymphocytic esophagitis: a diagnosis of increasing frequency. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2012; 46: 828–832

Rubio, C.A., Sjodahl, K., and Lagergren, J. Lymphocytic esophagitis: a histologic subset of chronic esophagitis. Am J Clin Pathol. 2006; 125: 432–437

Ebach, D.R., Vanderheyden, A.D., Ellison, J.M., and Jensen, C.S. Lymphocytic esophagitis: a possible manifestation of pediatric upper gastrointestinal Crohn׳s disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2011; 17: 45–49

Purdy, J.K., Appelman, H.D., Golembeski, C.P., and McKenna, B.J. Lymphocytic esophagitis: a chronic or recurring pattern of esophagitis resembling allergic contact dermatitis. Am J Clin Pathol. 2008; 130: 508–513

Sloughing esophagitis

Purdy, J.K., Appelman, H.D., and McKenna, B.J. Sloughing esophagitis is associated with chronic debilitation and medications that injure the esophageal mucosa. Mod Pathol. 2012; 25: 767–775

Carmack, S.W., Vemulapalli, R., Spechler, S.J., and Genta, R.M. Esophagitis dissecans superficialis (“sloughing esophagitis”): a clinicopathologic study of 12 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2009; 33: 1789–1794

De, S. and Williams, G.S. Esophagitis dissecans superficialis: a case report and literature review. Can J Gastroenterol. 2013; 27: 563–564

Crohn oesophagitis

Naranjo-Rodriguez, A., Solorzano-Peck, G., Lopez-Rubio, F. et al. Isolated oesophageal involvement of Crohn׳s disease. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2003; 15: 1123–1126

Rudolph, I., Goldstein, F., and DiMarino, A.J. Jr. Crohn׳s disease of the esophagus: three cases and a literature review. Can J Gastroenterol. 2001; 15: 117–122

Cameron, D.J. Upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy in children and adolescents with Crohn׳s disease: a prospective study. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1991; 6: 355–358

Ruuska, T., Vaajalahti, P., Arajarvi, P., and Maki, M. Prospective evaluation of upper gastrointestinal mucosal lesions in children with ulcerative colitis and Crohn׳s disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1994; 19: 181–186

Schmidt-Sommerfeld, E., Kirschner, B.S., and Stephens, J.K. Endoscopic and histologic findings in the upper gastrointestinal tract of children with Crohn׳s disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1990; 11: 448–454

Pantanowitz, L., Gelrud, A., Apstein, M., and Nasser, I. Crohn׳s disease of the esophagus. Ear Nose Throat J. 2004; 83 (420, 422–423)

van Hogezand, R.A., Witte, A.M., Veenendaal, R.A., Wagtmans, M.J., and Lamers, C.B. Proximal Crohn׳s disease: review of the clinicopathologic features and therapy. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2001; 7: 328–337

Feagans, J., Victor, D., and Joshi, V. Crohn disease of the esophagus: a review of the literature. South Med J. 2008; 101: 927–930

Ramaswamy, K., Jacobson, K., Jevon, G., and Israel, D. Esophageal Crohn disease in children: a clinical spectrum. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2003; 36: 454–458

Oesophageal GVHD

Sodhi, S.S., Srinivasan, R., and Thomas, R.M. Esophageal graft versus host disease. Gastrointest Endosc. 2000; 52: 235

Otero Lopez-Cubero, S., Sale, G.E., and McDonald, G.B. Acute graft-versus-host disease of the esophagus. Endoscopy. 1997; 29: S35–S36

Shulman, H.M., Kleiner, D., Lee, S.J. et al. Histopathologic diagnosis of chronic graft-versus-host disease: National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Project on Criteria for Clinical Trials in Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease: II. Pathology Working Group Report. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2006; 12: 31–47

Nguyen, T., Park, J.Y., Scudiere, J.R., and Montgomery, E. Mycophenolic acid (cellcept and myofortic) induced injury of the upper GI tract. Am J Surg Pathol. 2009; 33: 1355–1363

Novak, J.M., Collins, J.T., Donowitz, M., Farman, J., Sheahan, D.G., and Spiro, H.M. Effects of radiation on the human gastrointestinal tract. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1979; 1: 9–39

Bullous diseases

Galloro, G., Mignogna, M., de Werra, C. et al. The role of upper endoscopy in identifying oesophageal involvement in patients with oral pemphigus vulgaris. Dig Liver Dis. 2005; 37: 195–199

Amichai, B., Grunwald, M.H., Gasper, N., Finkelstein, E., and Halevy, S. A case of pemphigus vulgaris with esophageal involvement. J Dermatol. 1996; 23: 214–215

Goldberg, N.S. and Weiss, S.S. Pemphigus vulgaris of the esophagus in women. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1989; 21: 1115–1118

Goldin, E. and Lijovetzky, G. Esophageal involvement by pemphigus vulgaris. Am J Gastroenterol. 1985; 80: 828–830

Faias, S., Lage, P., Sachse, F. et al. Pemphigus vulgaris with exclusive involvement of the esophagus: case report and review. Gastrointest Endosc. 2004; 60: 312–315

Kaplan, R.P., Touloukian, J., Ahmed, A.R., and Newcomer, V.D. Esophagitis dissecans superficialis associated with pemphigus vulgaris. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1981; 4: 682–687

Gomi, H., Akiyama, M., Yakabi, K., Nakamura, T., and Matsuo, I. Oesophageal involvement in pemphigus vulgaris. Lancet. 1999; 354: 1794

Palleschi, G.M., Cipollini, E.M., and Lotti, T. Development of oesophageal involvement in a subject with pemphigus vulgaris: a case report and review of the literature. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2002; 16: 405–408

Trattner, A., David, M., and Sandbank, M. Esophageal manifestations in autoimmune bullous diseases. Int J Dermatol. 1992; 31: 687–690